Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the U.S. Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions [electronic resource]

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Tác giả:

Ngôn ngữ: eng

Ký hiệu phân loại: 621.811 Physical principles

Thông tin xuất bản: Washington, D.C. : Oak Ridge, Tenn. : United States. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy ; Distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 2016

Mô tả vật lý: Size: 194 p. : , digital, PDF file.

Bộ sưu tập: Metadata

ID: 258347

 The industrial sector was the third-largest source of direct U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2014 behind electricity generation and transportation and accounted for roughly 20% of total emissions (EPA 2016). The Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that total U.S. energy consumption will grow to about 108 exajoules (1 EJ = 10<
 sup>
 18<
 /sup>
  J) or 102 quads (1 quad = 10<
 sup>
 15<
 /sup>
  British thermal units) in 2025, with nearly all of the growth coming from the industrial sector (DOE 2015b). Energy consumption in the industrial sector is forecast to increase to 39.5 EJ (37.4 quads)?a 22% increase, exceeding 36% of total energy consumption in the United States. Therefore, it is imperative that industrial GHG emissions be considered in any strategy intent on achieving deep decarbonization of the energy sector as a whole. It is important to note that unlike the transportation sector and electrical grid, energy use by industry often involves direct conversion of primary energy sources to thermal and electrical energy at the point of consumption. About 52% of U.S. industrial direct GHG emissions are the result of fuel combustion (EPA 2016) to produce hot gases and steam for process heating, process reactions, and process evaporation, concentration, and drying. The heterogeneity and variations in scale of U.S. industry and the complexity of modern industrial firms? global supply chains are among the sector?s unique challenges to minimizing its GHG emissions. A combination of varied strategies?such as energy efficiency, material efficiency, and switching to low-carbon fuels?can help reduce absolute industrial GHG emissions. This report provides a complement to process-efficiency improvement to consider how clean energy delivery and use by industry could reduce GHG emissions. Specifically, it considers the possibility of replacing fossil-fuel combustion in industry with nuclear (specifically small modular reactors [SMRs]), solar thermal (referred to herein as solar industrial process heat [SIPH]), and geothermal energy sources. The possibility of applying electrical heating and greater use of hydrogen is also considered, although these opportunities are not discussed in as much detail.
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